One of the reasons why dogs make such good pets is the remarkable way in which they can communicate with humans. Pet dogs see us as an extension of their own canine family and are very quick to interpret our own mood and intentions. An understanding of how dogs communicate with other dogs will help the observant owner to correctly decipher the message their pet is trying to convey.

Dogs can communicate with other dogs through a series of signals including a variety of facial expressions, body postures, noises and scents. Your dog will use his mouth, eyes, ears and even his tail to express his emotions. By reading the combination of body signals, you should be able to work out who is top dog in any confrontation or situation.

A dog who is feeling confident or aggressive will try to convey the impression of being a larger, more powerful animal. He will stand tall with ears and tail erect, thrust his chest forward and may raise the hairs around his neck and along his back (his hackles). He may also wave his tail slowly and growl.

A submissive dog, on the other hand, will try to appear small and puppy-like. Adult dogs will chastise puppies, but they do not attack them. The approach to a more dominant individual is likely to be from the side, crouching low with the tail held low and wagging enthusiastically. He may also try to lick the hands and face of the dominant dog or person and if this is not sufficiently appeasing, he might then roll on to his back to expose his groin. In this position, some dogs may pass a small volume of urine.

One pattern of behaviour which is characteristic of dogs and familiar to almost everyone is tail wagging. Most people would recognise that loose, free tail wagging is indicative of pleasure and a general friendliness. Exaggerated tail wagging, which extends to the entire rump, may be seen in subordinate dogs – as well as those dogs with very short tails.

The tail, however, is also an indicator for other emotions. A tail waved slowly and stiffly, in line with the back, expresses anger. Clamped low over the dog’s hindquarters, it is a sign that the dog is afraid. Anxious or nervous dogs may stiffly wag their drooping tails as a sign of appeasement.

The normal tail carriage of the dog has been modified through breeding and docking. Some breeds, such as the Whippet and the Italian Greyhound naturally carry their tail in the clamped down position, but in general, a tail held at higher than 45 degrees to the spine expresses interest and alertness.

The facial expressions of your dog will tell you a lot about his mood, whether he is anxious or excited, frightened or playful or any one of a vast repertoire of emotions he may express.

The ears are pricked when he is alert or listening intently, but are held back or flattened onto the head when expressing pleasure, submission or fear. To read his mood correctly, you must watch for other body signals at the same time.

The eyes may be narrowed or half-closed in pleasure or submission, but are wide open when aggressive. In the wild, the pack leader can maintain control simply by staring at a subordinate dog. The two animals will continue to stare at each other until one challenges the other or until one lowers his head and turns away. If the staring continues after the submissive dog has looked away, he will feel confused and may bite out of fear. If eye contact is not broken, the dominant dog will reinforce his threat by snarling, growling or even attack. You should not try to outstare your dog if he has aggressive or nervous tendencies as this could provoke an attack. Nevertheless, regular, gentle eye contact with his owner is reassuring for your dog and will reinforce your relationship.

Submissive dogs and those of certain breeds, notably Labradors, may appear to be ‘smiling’ when they open their mouth to show the teeth in a lop-sided grin of friendliness. In the snarl of aggression, however, both lips are drawn right back to expose most of the teeth and may be accompanied by a growl.

A dog will indicate his desire to play, raising a front paw, or by performing the play bow, which is often accompanied by barking to attract attention. Other gestures include offering a play object, or bounding up to another dog to invite chase.

This information is referenced from the Waltham website which can be located at


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